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Water Purification Review

There are number of water purification techniques but the adsorption is one of the most simplest, effective and economical method for wastewater purification. In this article a large number of solid adsorbents such as Natural adsorbents, Agricultural Wastes, Industrial wastes, Biomass, Nanoadsorbents: Carbon based nanomaterials, Nobel metal based nanomaterials, Metal oxide based nanomaterials, Spinel ferrite bahtsed nanomaterials, Nanocomposites, Dendritic polymers; Geopolymer cement have been discussed for the removal of different pollutants from waste water. Removal of Fluoride, Phosphate, Nitrate and Radionuclides from wastewater has also been reviewed in this article. Adsorption isotherm models, kinetic models, thermodynamic parameters and adsorption mechanism have also been discussed. The present article lists different type of adsorbents and reviews state-of-the-art of the removal of different pollutants from water.

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Perspective And Challenges

PERSPECTIVE-AND-CHALLENGES

Surface water is limited and there are no perennial streams. The increase in population and socio-economic development has led to an imbalance between supply and demand. An overview of these processes and the challenges faced—like scaling of tubes in MSF and membrane fouling in RO—is discussed. This review also highlights the present trends in water pre-treatment and integrated membrane systems.

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Wastewater Reuse

Wastewater-Reuse

A simple conceptual model is applied to explore how demand among different users interacts with water supply to produce different reuse cases. The economics of these cases are discussed with reference to data on water pricing and wastewater management. The analysis shows that a variety of constraints inhibit formal reuse of wastewater in MENA, with low demand for reclaimed wastewater, the widespread lack of effective price signals and cost recovery in the water sector, and challenges in structuring the financing of reuse.

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Recovery Water Supplies

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Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is increasingly being viewed as a way to provide large storage capacity to capture seasonally or intermittently available excess water for later beneficial use. Potential stored waters include desalted and reclaimed water (treated sewage effluent) surplus produced during low-demand periods. ASR is a proven technology, but its implementation has problems. ASR systems vary in their hydrologic value

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Desalination of Water

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In the face of rising water demands and dwindling freshwater supplies, alternative water sources are needed. Desalination of water has become a key to helping meet increasing water needs, especially in water-stressed countries where water obtained by desalination far exceeds supplies from the freshwater sources. Recent technological advancements have enabled desalination to become more efficient and cost-competitive on a global scale. This has become possible due to the improvement in the materials used in membrane-based desalination, incorporation of energy-recovery devices to reduce electricity demands, and combining different desalination methods into hybrid designs.

Drinking water treatment

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The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, resulting in a strong affinity for anionic species. Recent research has focused on using WTR as cost-effective materials to reduce soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, runoff, and land-applied organic wastes (manures and biosolids). Studies show P adsorption by WTR to be fast and nearly irreversible, suggesting long-term stable immobilization of WTR-bound P. Because excessive WTR application can induce P deficiency in crops, effective application rates and methods remain an area of intense research.

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